The choice of operating systems – Windows & Linux
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Windows NT – it’s not any more or Windows2000. This is a series, but rather a platform on the basis of which the operating system being developed. Almost all of the Windows based on this platform. In addition to the NT there is a 9x platform to which the Windows95, Windows98 and WindowsME. The number that appears after the letters “NT” – is developing the ordinal number or serial number of the OS. Now comes Windows7 (Windows NT6.1), seventh on the basis of the development of NT. Vista – NT6.0, XP – NT5.1, Windows2000 – NT5.0. Win2K – it’s just a physical interpretation of (2R = 2000), and Windows NT – a family of operating systems. With that often comes up when downloading guide to installing and configuring the device or driver.
Since the days of Windows95 operating system interface basically has not changed much, of course, it has become qualitatively better and more convenient, there are many new features. But the man who worked for Windows2000 is easy to learn and in subsequent versions of the OS (if we talk about the interface of the system as a whole). Technically, the systems differ and how to solve technical problems on different systems vary.
In general, if we describe this family of operating systems, we can say that the history of Windows is divided into two parts – before the release of Windows Vista and later. There is nothing fundamentally new in this version of the interface of its OS, Microsoft has not introduced, but was completely rewritten kernel. In consequence of this was lost compatibility with older programs (development of which is stopped before the release of Vista) and device drivers. This is partly due to the overkill notoriety and unpopularity of this version of Windows. In Windows7 developers took into account the errors, software and hardware manufacturers have had the opportunity to produce software and hardware with the new requirements of the OS, but most of the old software and old hardware that the operating system no longer supported.
Other operating systems
Naturally, the world of computer technology does not end on Windows. There are many other operating systems on different platforms, both commercial and free:
- Haiku (an analog of the free BeOS)
- eComStation (OS / 2)
- Chromium OS
- and other…
Most of the listed – it is the heirs of the operating system UNIX, not direct, but using the principles of its predecessor. Among others it may be noted FreeDOS - a free clone of the famous MSDOS (the predecessor of Windows), ReactOS - project based on a desire to make a free Windows-compatible analog and Chromium OS - a good example of a next generation operating system, based on the principle of the Internet.
In continuation of this article, I will not describe all of the above, but will focus separately on a large enough group of operating systems GNU. Linux, since the OS options in this group is wast. So any idea about Linux in this regard should not get confused.
- On Linux.
- graphical user interface
- choice of distribution
- software installation
The device on Linux
Linux – this is not an operating system, but only its core. Everything that you used to see and understand how OSes (buttons, windows and panels) – in fact it is not. What you see – it’s GUI (Graphical user interface), it has a graphical user interface, also known as the graphical environment, or desktop environment. GUI – is a program designed to make life easier for the user, so he did not suffer from the console. In fact, any operating system looks like a console, that is, as the good old DOS.
Graphical desktop GNU / Linux
With the windows all clear – a designer, a graphical environment. Its quality depends on the abilities and efforts of programmer. Linux is – a system of open and free, so anyone can write any program and the GUI as well. Its popularity will depend on how much users like it in terms of beauty, stability, ease of use. The most widely used GUI-program “GNOME” and “KDE”, but they are quite demanding on system resources. Of course, there are more “light” counterparts, such as’ X (Xorg, Xvesa) or Openbox. When it comes to the user program, along with a shell (GUI) uses the term “Front end” (the user interface and data entry interface.) As you can see, the choice is large enough.
Classification of distribution GNU / Linux
The distribution can gather anyone and no one, and this process is not controlled. On the one hand it is good, on the other – a complete mess. True Linus Torvalds still controls the development of the core and has a deciding vote when making changes in his official thread.
The choice of the distribution for business and the individual can be challenging. By large, all distributions can be divided into two broad categories: regular and mini. The main criterion for their definition – resource consumption and size.
Let me explain: Debian is - the most stable distribution. Community refers to the development and stability are very responsible, I would even say religiously. Each release is tested very carefully. Therefore, releases come out infrequently, and programs included in it.
Slack - the oldest of the centenarians. Community of this distribution is credited with the following statement: “If you know Slackware – you know GNU / Linux. If you know Red Hat, then all that you know – it’s Red Hat”.
RedHat - a successful commercial project, which incorporates the commercial distribution of Red Hat Enterprise and free - Fedora. As a result of this success – and the widespread promotion of this family of distributions and, consequently, a very large community of users.
Gentoo - distribution, going from source code. Requires a certain level of knowledge from the user, but when building from source is most compatible with the specific machine on which and for which the assembly and compilation of the operating system components and software. As a result of productivity gains in the range of 10-100% in comparison with other distributions.
Installing programs on GNU / Linux
Now about the program or should I say the packages … In Windows, there are two kinds of software installers – “. Msi” and “. Exe”. The operating principle is a little bit different, but the same result. Problems or difficulties, absolutely no. On the Linux installer program has a few. Developers and communities do not have consensus on this issue, so there is no single standard. This creates certain difficulties in software OS family of Linux.
In fact, everything seems to be simple – an archive (. Tar.gz, for example), which contains a folder tree with files. To install it often it is enough to extract it in the root directory where you installed the OS. As a result, get the files into the correct folder. The program will start and run. Everyone is happy and satisfied. But if there was a need to remove the program, the fun begins …